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小企业金融丛书》:保险

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年10月16日 22:44:37
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(小)(额)(保)(险)(是)(一)(种)(新)(兴)(的)(互)(补)(工)(具)(,可)(以)(帮)(助)(低)(收)(入)(人)(群)(更)(有)(效)(地)(管)(理)(风)(险)(。它)(提)(供)(针)(对)(特)(定)(的)(危)(险)(进)(行)(保)(护)(,包)(括)(死)(亡)(,残)(疾)(,住)(院)(治)(疗)(或)(颗)(粒)(无)(收)(,以)(换)(取)(和)(风)(险)(发)(生)(时)(的)(可)(能)(情)(形)(和)(所)(需)(开)(销)(相)(匹)(配)(的)(定)(期)(付)(款)(比)(例)(。通)(常)(情)(况)(下)(,术)(语)(“保)(险)(”是)(泛)(指)(一)(般)(风)(险)(防)(范)(和)(管)(理)(技)(术)(。例)(如)(,紧)(急)(用)(途)(储)(蓄)(可)(能)(被)(称)(为)(保)(险)(基)(金)(。然)(而)(这)(本)(书)(,使)(用)(了)(更)(狭)(隘)(的)(定)(义)(,规)(定)(小)(额)(保)(险)(,像)(传)(统)(的)(保)(险)(一)(样)(,包)(括)(风)(险)(共)(担)(元)(素)(,它)(允)(许)(一)(大)(群)(被)(保)(险)(实)(体)(共)(享)(从)(一)(种)(罕)(见)(事)(件)(发)(生)(所)(造)(成)(的)(损)(失)(。
被)(保)(险)(的)(实)(体)(,如)(人)(、企)(业)(、家)(庭)(、社)(区)(,甚)(至)(是)(国)(家)(,因)(此)(免)(受)(风)(险)(,作)(为)(交)(换)(,要)(缴)(纳)(所)(谓)(的)(保)(险)(费)(。保)(险)(费)(金)(额)(由)(事)(件)(发)(生)(的)(频)(率)(和)(严)(重)(程)(度)(所)(决)(定)(的)(,那)(些)(在)(某)(个)(特)(定)(时)(期)(风)(险)(池)(里)(没)(有)(遭)(受)(损)(失)(的)(人)(,实)(际)(上)(已)(经)(支)(付)(其)(他)(人)(所)(经)(历)(的)(损)(失)(。保)(险)(降)(低)(了)(家)(庭)(的)(脆)(弱)(程)(度)(,因)(为)(家)(庭)(将)(风)(险)(,取)(得)(的)(不)(确)(定)(性)(替)(换)(为)(伴)(随)(着)(制)(造)(小)(型)(、定)(期)(缴)(纳)(保)(险)(费)(和)(一)(旦)(危)(险)(发)(生)(接)(受)(偿)(付)(的)(现)(象)(。这)(种)(风)(险)(分)(担)(功)(能)(使)(得)(保)(险)(比)(储)(蓄)(、信)(用)(或)(支)(付)(服)(务)(更)(复)(杂)(。
尽)(管)(特)(征)(上)(与)(传)(统)(保)(险)(相)(似)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(需)(要)(使)(用)(根)(本)(不)(同)(的)(方)(法)(以)(适)(用)(于)(相)(关)(的)(低)(收)(入)(市)(场)(和)(可)(行)(的)(供)(应)(商)(。保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(产)(品)(一)(般)(并)(非)(专)(为)(满)(足)(贫)(穷)(劳)(动)(人)(群)(的)(特)(点)(,特)(别)(是)(非)(正)(规)(经)(济)(中)(谋)(生)(计)(者)(不)(规)(律)(的)(家)(庭)(现)(金)(流)(量)(这)(一)(特)(征)(而)(设)(计)(的)(。其)(他)(主)(要)(产)(品)(设)(计)(挑)(战)(包)(括)(不)(合)(适)(的)(保)(险)(金)(数)(额)(、复)(杂)(的)(除)(外)(责)(任)(以)(及)(难)(以)(辨)(认)(法)(律)(政)(策)(的)(语)(言)(,所)(有)(这)(些)(都)(阻)(碍)(了)(有)(效)(地)(为)(穷)(人)(服)(务)(。
将)(保)(险)(业)(扩)(展)(到)(穷)(人)(的)(另)(一)(个)(主)(要)(的)(挑)(战)(是)(教)(化)(这)(个)(市)(场)(并)(克)(服)(其)(对)(保)(险)(的)(偏)(见)(。许)(多)(贫)(穷)(的)(人)(对)(为)(无)(形)(产)(品)(支)(付)(保)(费)(以)(享)(受)(未)(来)(可)(能)(不)(会)(享)(受)(到)(的)(好)(处)(持)(怀)(疑)(态)(度)(。保)(险)(供)(应)(商)(被)(视)(为)(迅)(速)(地)(拿)(一)(个)(人)(的)(钱)(,但)(却)(缓)(慢)(地)(付)(出)(来)(。事)(实)(上)(,这)(种)(偏)(见)(在)(两)(个)(方)(向)(上)(都)(有)(。保)(险)(公)(司)(工)(作)(的)(人)(通)(常)(不)(熟)(悉)(贫)(困)(人)(口)(的)(需)(求)(和)(担)(忧)(。此)(外)(,保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(文)(化)(和)(激)(励)(回)(报)(并)(鼓)(励)(销)(售)(人)(员)(把)(焦)(点)(专)(注)(于)(更)(大)(政)(策)(和)(更)(有)(利)(可)(图)(的)(客)(户)(。
小)(额)(保)(险)(仅)(仅)(是)(低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(可)(获)(得)(的)(几)(个)(风)(险)(管)(理)(工)(具)(之)(一)(,所)(以)(真)(正)(关)(心)(关)(于)(帮)(助)(穷)(人)(管)(理)(风)(险)(的)(组)(织)(应)(评)(估)(是)(否)(提)(供)(小)(额)(保)(险)(是)(最)(合)(适)(的)(响)(应)(。对)(于)(那)(些)(造)(成)(损)(失)(较)(小)(或)(发)(生)(概)(率)(高)(的)(风)(险)(,储)(蓄)(和)(紧)(急)(贷)(款)(会)(是)(更)(适)(当)(的)(风)(险)(管)(理)(金)(融)(服)(务)(。储)(蓄)(和)(信)(贷)(也)(比)(保)(险)(更)(灵)(活)(,因)(为)(它)(们)(可)(以)(用)(于)(各)(种)(不)(同)(的)(风)(险)((和)(机)(会)()。另)(一)(方)(面)(,对)(于)(大)(的)(损)(失)(,相)(比)(贫)(困)(家)(庭)(的)(自)(我)(补)(偿)(,保)(险)(提)(供)(了)(更)(完)(整)(的)(覆)(盖)(,对)(于)(这)(些)(较)(大)(的)(风)(险)(,参)(与)(一)(个)(风)(险)(池)(相)(比)(家)(庭)(自)(己)(尝)(试)(的)(独)(立)(保)(护)(是)(一)(种)(更)(有)(效)(的)(手)(段)(保)(护)(。
像)(其)(他)(金)(融)(产)(品)(一)(样)(,穷)(人)(保)(险)(计)(划)(必)(须)(平)(衡)(三)(个)(竞)(争)(目)(标)(:(1)提)(供)(覆)(盖)(范)(围)(,以)(满)(足)(目)(标)(人)(群)(的)(需)(求)(;(2)减)(少)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(经)(营)(成)(本)(;(3)减)(少)(价)(格)((包)(括)(交)(易)(成)(本)()为)(客)(户)(增)(强)(承)(受)(能)(力)(和)(可)(接)(触)(性)(。该)(目)(标)(是)(要)(在)(广)(泛)(的)(包)(容)(性)(、足)(够)(的)(好)(处)(、低)(溢)(价)(率)(和)(可)(持)(续)(性)(之)(间)(寻)(求)(平)(衡)(。
产)(品)(选)(择)(
在)(设)(计)(保)(险)(产)(品)(时)(,各)(种)(选)(择)(都)(需)(要)(考)(虑)(。保)(险)(将)(提)(供)(给)(团)(体)(还)(是)(个)(人)(?是)(强)(制)(性)(的)(还)(是)(自)(愿)(性)(的)(?覆)(盖)(条)(款)(及)(价)(格)(是)(什)(么)(?将)(如)(何)(收)(取)(保)(费)(?以)(及)(将)(如)(何)(支)(付)(收)(益)(?
团)(体)(或)(个)(人)(保)(险)(
区)(分)(个)(人)(保)(险)(还)(是)(团)(体)(保)(险)(的)(主)(要)(特)(征)(在)(于)(,对)(于)(团)(体)(保)(险)(,很)(多)(人)(都)(在)(一)(个)(主)(保)(单)(里)(承)(保)(。该)(团)(体)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(决)(定)(为)(该)(组)(的)(成)(员)(买)(覆)(盖)(什)(么)(范)(围)(的)(保)(险)(,负)(责)(招)(收)(成)(员)(,收)(取)(保)(费)(,传)(播)(保)(险)(及)(产)(品)(证)(书)(信)(息)(,并)(协)(助)(成)(员)(申)(报)(赔)(偿)(。该)(保)(单)(描)(述)(并)(定)(义)(该)(组)(成)(员)(的)(资)(格)(。
团)(体)(保)(险)(的)(承)(保)(指)(引)(一)(般)(在)(开)(始)(时)(要)(明)(确)(定)(义)(该)(团)(体)(的)(基)(本)(要)(求)(。主)(要)(的)(标)(准)(是)(,该)(团)(体)(已)(形)(成)(的)(原)(因)(必)(须)(不)(是)(为)(了)(获)(得)(保)(险)(。这)(种)(机)(制)(应)(该)(限)(制)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(的)(范)(围)(,并)(允)(许)(更)(容)(易)(承)(保)(和)(风)(险)(管)(理)(的)(现)(象)(出)(现)(;需)(要)(特)(别)(小)(心)(恰)(当)(地)(执)(行)(,适)(用)(于)(团)(体)(保)(险)(的)(团)(体)(例)(子)(包)(括)(公)(司)(的)(在)(职)(职)(工)(,工)(会)(成)(员)(,小)(微)(金)(融)(机)(构)((MFI)的)(借)(款)(人)(及)(同)(业)(团)(体)(,如)(专)(业)(团)(体)(或)(社)(区)(协)(会)(。
个)(人)(小)(额)(保)(险)(需)(要)(潜)(在)(的)(目)(标)(市)(场)(的)(高)(参)(与)(率)(,确)(保)(提)(供)(个)(人)(保)(险)(财)(政)(上)(的)(可)(持)(续)(性)(。个)(人)(保)(险)(费)(用)(通)(常)(是)(团)(体)(保)(险)(的)(两)(倍)(,因)(为)(它)(需)(要)(较)(高)(的)(销)(售)(、承)(保)(、管)(理)(和)(索)(赔)(费)(用)(。通)(过)(更)(严)(格)(的)(承)(保)(,如)(医)(疗)(检)(查)((因)(为)(不)(良)(风)(险)(将)(被)(识)(别)(和)(过)(滤)(掉)(或)(者)(是)(仅)(限)(于)(较)(低)(的)(理)(赔)(范)(围)()单)(个)(保)(险)(索)(赔)(成)(本)(可)(以)(减)(少)(。然)(而)(,对)(于)(小)(额)(保)(险)(附)(加)(检)(查)(可)(能)(不)(经)(济)(,因)(为)(覆)(盖)(率)(非)(常)(低)(;此)(外)(,它)(可)(能)(会)(违)(背)(小)(额)(保)(险)(商)(的)(社)(会)(议)(程)(。
个)(人)(保)(险)(的)(主)(要)(优)(点)(是)(一)(旦)(团)(体)(成)(员)(资)(格)(停)(止)(,仍)(可)(以)(继)(续)(对)(个)(人)(进)(行)(覆)(盖)(,例)(如)(,对)(于)(不)(再)(需)(要)(贷)(款)(的)(小)(微)(金)(融)(机)(构)(借)(款)(人)(。使)(用)(延)(续)(选)(择)(团)(体)(覆)(盖)(可)(被)(转)(化)(为)(个)(人)(保)(单)(,在)(某)(种)(程)(度)(上)(,团)(体)(覆)(盖)(依)(赖)(基)(础)(设)(施)(组)(织)(的)(支)(持)((如)(使)(用)(小)(额)(信)(贷)(机)(构)(收)(取)(使)(用)(费)(),延)(续)(保)(留)(可)(能)(需)(要)(额)(外)(收)(费)(和)(管)(理)(。
自)(愿)(性)(或)(强)(制)(性)(保)(险)(
强)(制)(性)(保)(险)(是)(最)(常)(见)(的)(小)(额)(保)(险)(类)(型)(,指)(一)(个)(组)(织)(要)(求)(其)(所)(有)(客)(户)(购)(买)(保)(险)(或)(是)(作)(为)(一)(个)(忠)(诚)(激)(励)(提)(供)(给)(客)(户)(。强)(制)(性)(参)(与)(确)(保)(了)(人)(们)(广)(泛)(参)(与)(的)(参)(与)(面)(,有)(助)(于)(限)(制)(反)(向)(选)(择)(。如)(果)(是)(以)(需)(求)(驱)(动)(和)(客)(户)(为)(中)(心)(的)(,人)(们)(所)(期)(望)(的)(自)(愿)(覆)(盖)(将)(是)(最)(合)(适)(的)(。然)(而)(,在)(保)(险)(领)(域)(,特)(别)(是)(在)(承)(受)(能)(力)(是)(非)(常)(重)(要)(的)(小)(额)(保)(险)(领)(域)(,一)(个)(强)(有)(力)(的)(理)(由)(可)(以)(强)(制)(进)(行)(覆)(盖)(,因)(为)(它)(执)(行)(以)(下)(操)(作)(:
"允)(许)(保)(险)(公)(司)(去)(达)(到)(规)(模)(,从)(而)(增)(加)(预)(测)(未)(来)(索)(赔)(的)(准)(确)(性)(。
"减)(少)(由)(于)(销)(量)(增)(加)(的)(成)(本)(和)(较)(低)(的)(费)(用)(率)(,管)(理)(,收)(集)(和)(承)(销)(费)(用)(。
"提)(高)(索)(赔)(的)(比)(率)(,因)(为)(它)(带)(来)(的)(低)(风)(险)(的)(个)(人)(,这)(被)(称)(为)(积)(极)(的)(选)(择)(,否)(则)(他)(们)(可)(能)(会)(选)(择)(退)(出)(或)(推)(迟)(他)(们)(的)(参)(与)(。
"减)(少)(员)(工)(舞)(弊)(漏)(洞)(,因)(为)(后)(者)(降)(低)(了)(代)(理)(销)(售)(保)(单)(和)(留)(住)(保)(费)(的)(机)(会)(。
社)(区)(团)(体)(,如)(妇)(女)(协)(会)(和)(其)(他)(社)(区)(组)(织)(,金)(融)(合)(作)(社)(,小)(微)(金)(融)(机)(构)(的)(借)(款)(人)(和)(小)(商)(业)(协)(会)(,可)(以)(利)(用)(分)(销)(渠)(道)(以)(防)(止)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(的)(机)(制)(。强)(制)(性)(覆)(盖)(的)(一)(个)(最)(大)(的)(缺)(点)(,除)(了)(事)(实)(上)(人)(们)(被)(要)(求)(购)(买)(他)(们)(不)(想)(要)(东)(西)(,主)(要)(在)(于)(分)(配)(制)(度)(往)(往)(忽)(略)(了)(消)(费)(者)(的)(需)(求)(信)(息)(。
这)(类)(产)(品)(一)(般)(具)(有)(过)(低)(的)(索)(赔)(率)(,似)(乎)(是)(人)(们)(不)(知)(道)(他)(们)(都)(被)(包)(括)(在)(内)(的)(结)(果)(。正)(如)(一)(位)(农)(村)(银)(行)(家)(在)(加)(纳)(指)(出)(“如)(果)(我)(们)(告)(诉)(人)(们)(他)(们)(都)(被)(覆)(盖)(,我)(们)(就)(会)(收)(到)(大)(量)(索)(赔)(”。当)(提)(供)(强)(制)(覆)(盖)(,小)(额)(保)(险)((或)(其)(代)(理)(人)()需)(要)(确)(保)(客)(户)(知)(道)(有)(关)(购)(买)(无)(形)(资)(产)(服)(务)(将)(提)(供)(安)(全)(和)(安)(心)(确)(保)(他)(们)(能)(够)(体)(会)(到)(好)(处)(,从)(而)(导)(致)(建)(立)(一)(个)(保)(险)(文)(化)(。
小)(额)(保)(险)(供)(应)(商)(可)(以)(结)(合)(强)(制)(性)(和)(自)(愿)(性)(的)(覆)(盖)(优)(势)(通)(过)(使)(保)(险)(对)(现)(有)(组)(织)(所)(有)(成)(员)(的)(强)(制)((最)(大)(限)(度)(地)(减)(少)(反)(向)(选)(择)(),同)(时)(提)(供)(两)(个)(或)(三)(个)(选)(项)(可)(供)(选)(择)(。这)(允)(许)(成)(员)(去)(选)(择)(他)(们)(喜)(欢)(的)(覆)(盖)(水)(平)(,而)(且)(将)(增)(加)(他)(们)(获)(得)(足)(够)(信)(息)(作)(出)(明)(智)(的)(决)(定)(的)(可)(能)(性)(。通)(过)(争)(取)(团)(体)(的)(支)(持)(有)(些)(小)(额)(保)(险)(比)(传)(统)(的)(保)(险)(公)(司)(更)(有)(效)(地)(使)(用)(群)(体)(,以)(减)(少)(过)(度)(使)(用)(的)(风)(险)(和)(道)(德)(风)(险)(。
保)(险)(期)(限)(及)(定)(价)(
很)(多)(小)(额)(保)(险)(产)(品)(有)(12个)(月)(或)(更)(少)(的)(期)(限)(。短)(期)(保)(单)(一)(般)(为)(保)(险)(公)(司)(首)(选)(,因)(为)(长)(期)(保)(险)(涉)(及)(长)(期)(承)(诺)(,从)(而)(风)(险)(较)(高)(——相)(比)(在)(未)(来)(10年)(更)(容)(易)(预)(测)(在)(明)(年)(的)(保)(险)(事)(故)(的)(可)(能)(性)(。然)(而)(,对)(于)(被)(保)(险)(人)(,事)(实)(正)(好)(相)(反)(:长)(期)(覆)(盖)(的)(优)(点)(在)(于)(他)(或)(她)(将)(长)(期)(有)(保)(障)(而)(无)(须)(每)(年)(都)(重)(新)(申)(请)(保)(险)(。
为)(了)(解)(决)(需)(要)(平)(衡)(的)(长)(期)(风)(险)(与)(客)(户)(对)(长)(期)(覆)(盖)(的)(喜)(好)(,短)(期)(保)(单)(可)(以)(有)(一)(个)(期)(限)(更)(新)(安)(排)(,据)(此)(,保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(可)(以)(继)(续)(拥)(有)(直)(至)(覆)(盖)(最)(长)(的)(时)(间)(,而)(无)(须)(重)(新)(申)(请)(,只)(要)(缴)(付)(保)(费)(即)(可)(。期)(限)(更)(新)(将)(长)(短)(期)(保)(险)(的)(优)(点)(结)(合)(起)(来)(被)(保)(险)(人)(被)(保)(证)(接)(受)(继)(续)(覆)(盖)(范)(围)(,但)(保)(险)(公)(司)(可)(以)(调)(整)(定)(价)(,在)(每)(次)(延)(长)(期)(限)(,根)(据)(其)(经)(验)(向)(上)(或)(向)(下)(调)(价)(。
虽)(然)(保)(险)(公)(司)(倾)(向)(于)(排)(除)(高)(危)(人)(士)(,或)(向)(他)(们)(收)(取)(比)(别)(人)(高)(的)(费)(率)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(计)(划)(一)(般)(力)(求)(做)(到)(包)(容)(性)(。由)(于)(保)(额)(体)(积)(小)(,识)(别)(高)(危)(人)(士)(的)(费)(用)(高)(,如)(那)(些)(预)(先)(已)(经)(存)(在)(的)(疾)(病)(,可)(能)(比)(把)(他)(们)(首)(先)(排)(除)(的)(财)(务)(效)(益)(更)(高)(。因)(此)(,不)(是)(根)(据)(个)(人)(的)(风)(险)(状)(况)(对)(产)(品)(定)(价)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(一)(般)(采)(用)(团)(组)(定)(价)(方)(法)(,限)(制)(排)(除)(和)(限)(制)(的)(数)(量)(,降)(低)(行)(政)(成)(本)(,提)(高)(了)(效)(率)(,而)(团)(组)(则)(提)(供)(控)(制)(保)(险)(风)(险)(的)(一)(些)(手)(段)(。
除)(了)(使)(用)(群)(体)(团)(组)(,保)(险)(计)(划)(纳)(入)(各)(种)(机)(制)(,以)(防)(止)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(和)(过)(度)(使)(用)(,包)(括)(免)(赔)(额)(,共)(付)(额)(和)(受)(益)(上)(限)(。确)(定)(了)(扣)(除)(金)(额)(,低)(于)(规)(定)(数)(额)(的)(所)(有)(索)(赔)(都)(由)(被)(保)(险)(人)(支)(付)(。共)(付)(额)(安)(排)(作)(为)(一)(笔)(固)(定)(费)(用)(意)(味)(着)(部)(分)(由)(保)(险)(人)(支)(付)(及)(部)(分)(由)(保)(险)(公)(司)(支)(付)(,通)(常)(为)(一)(个)(固)(定)(期)(限)(内)(按)(人)(头)(计)(算)(访)(问)(的)(具)(体)(数)(额)(。受)(益)(上)(限)(限)(制)(总)(赔)(付)(额)(到)(指)(定)(的)(金)(额)(,通)(常)(以)(每)(人)(在)(一)(个)(固)(定)(的)(周)(期)(计)(算)(,不)(是)(使)(用)(等)(待)(期)(或)(筛)(查)(高)(危)(人)(群)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(计)(划)(通)(常)(包)(括)(逐)(渐)(累)(积)(的)(利)(益)(,在)(覆)(盖)(的)(最)(初)(几)(个)(月)(很)(少)(,而)(随)(着)(时)(间)(的)(推)(移)(将)(会)(增)(加)(,也)(创)(造)(了)(更)(新)(的)(激)(励)(。
保)(险)(费)(缴)(付)(机)(制)(
支)(付)(保)(险)(费)(的)(方)(法)(必)(须)(尽)(量)(减)(少)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(管)(理)(成)(本)(和)(对)(客)(户)(的)(交)(易)(成)(本)(。在)(一)(般)(情)(况)(下)(,收)(取)(保)(险)(费)(的)(最)(佳)(时)(期)(是)(当)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(持)(有)(现)(金)(时)(,例)(如)(,在)(收)(获)(时)(,或)(当)(它)(们)(收)(到)(贷)(款)(或)(政)(府)(的)(现)(金)(转)(移)(时)(。
为)(了)(简)(化)(支)(付)(保)(险)(费)(,一)(个)(常)(见)(的)(策)(略)(就)(是)(“搭)(便)(车)(”的)(溢)(价)(于)(另)(一)(项)(金)(融)(交)(易)(之)(上)(。连)(带)(支)(付)(保)(险)(费)(的)(贷)(款)(是)(这)(一)(策)(略)(中)(一)(个)(很)(好)(的)(例)(子)(,当)(客)(户)(端)(收)(到)(一)(笔)(贷)(款)(,他)(们)(有)(现)(金)(来)(支)(付)(保)(险)(费)(。同)(时)(这)(种)(策)(略)(也)(是)(实)(现)(高)(续)(约)(的)(最)(简)(单)(的)(方)(法)(之)(一)(。其)(缺)(点)(是)(,只)(有)(收)(到)(贷)(款)(的)(客)(户)(可)(以)(得)(到)(保)(险)(保)(障)(。
另)(外)(,储)(蓄)(和)(保)(险)(之)(间)(的)(联)(系)(提)(供)(了)(比)(信)(用)(和)(保)(险)(间)(的)(联)(系)(更)(多)(的)(连)(续)(覆)(盖)(,而)(且)(它)(可)(以)(显)(著)(降)(低)(交)(易)(成)(本)(。这)(可)(以)(通)(过)(从)(储)(蓄)(账)(户)(扣)(除)(保)(险)(费)(进)(行)((虽)(然)(有)(一)(个)(公)(共)(关)(系)(风)(险)(,存)(款)(人)(可)(能)(不)(知)(道)(,这)(些)(钱)(被)(从)(中)(扣)(除)()。另)(一)(种)(更)(具)(创)(新)(性)(的)(储)(蓄)(和)(保)(险)(之)(间)(联)(系)(是)(建)(立)(一)(个)(定)(期)(存)(款)(账)(户)(,并)(允)(许)(用)(利)(息)(支)(付)(保)(险)(费)(,此)(方)(法)(的)(一)(个)(挑)(战)(是)(最)(穷)(的)(客)(户)(要)(在)(账)(户)(存)(入)(足)(够)(钱)(,从)(管)(理)(的)(角)(度)(看)(,应)(付)(账)(款)(的)(风)(险)(利)(益)(率)(可)(能)(会)(改)(变)(而)(不)(足)(以)(支)(付)(保)(险)(费)(。
最)(近)(,保)(险)(被)(链)(接)(到)(其)(他)(金)(融)(交)(易)(,如)(购)(买)(食)(品)(杂)(货)(或)(手)(机)(通)(话)(时)(间)(或)(支)(付)(电)(费)(。更)(多)(有)(效)(支)(付)(服)(务)(的)(出)(现)(,例)(如)(,通)(过)(智)(能)(卡)(和)(销)(售)(点)(的)(设)(备)(或)(移)(动)(手)(机)(本)(身)(,创)(造)(了)(一)(个)(新)(的)(保)(费)(收)(取)(平)(台)(,且)(拓)(展)(了)(普)(及)(空)(间)(。
合)(格)(
当)(要)(设)(计)(一)(个)(保)(险)(产)(品)(时)(,确)(定)(被)(覆)(盖)(的)(对)(象)(是)(必)(需)(的)(。通)(常)(一)(个)(产)(品)(覆)(盖)(的)(人)(越)(多)(越)(好)(,因)(此)(,一)(个)(家)(庭)(受)(益)(方)(法)(,即)(可)(能)(包)(括)(配)(偶)(,家)(属)(,甚)(至)(父)(母)(的)(家)(庭)(,将)(为)(小)(额)(保)(险)(商)(创)(造)(大)(量)(优)(势)(:
"一)(个)(家)(庭)(是)(一)(组)(承)(载)(着)(许)(多)(相)(同)(覆)(盖)(优)(势)((包)(括)(人)(数)(更)(多)(和)(更)(低)(的)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(风)(险)()的)(群)(体)(,当)(所)(有)(其)(他)(条)(件)(相)(同)(时)(,针)(对)(家)(庭)(单)(位)(的)(保)(费)(价)(格)(一)(般)(比)(个)(体)(的)(保)(费)(价)(格)(总)(和)(要)(低)(。
"家)(庭)(覆)(盖)(可)(以)(有)(效)(地)(覆)(盖)(低)(风)(险)(人)(群)(。
"家)(庭)(覆)(盖)(往)(往)(更)(有)(市)(场)(效)(应)(,因)(为)(索)(赔)(频)(繁)(,所)(以)(会)(有)(更)(多)(的)(例)(子)(来)(证)(明)(小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(价)(值)(。
"贷)(款)(人)(关)(心)(他)(们)(的)(贷)(款)(能)(否)(得)(到)(保)(护)(且)(意)(识)(到)(当)(死)(亡)(或)(疾)(病)(打)(击)(借)(款)(人)(的)(家)(族)(成)(员)(时)(,借)(款)(人)(能)(否)(还)(款)(的)(问)(题)(。
家)(庭)(优)(势)(的)(负)(面)(在)(于)(,并)(非)(每)(个)(人)(都)(有)(一)(个)(家)(庭)(,或)(有)(些)(人)(有)(更)(大)(的)(家)(庭)(。为)(了)(应)(对)(大)(小)(家)(庭)(,个)(体)(保)(险)(要)(么)(要)(求)(投)(保)(人)(确)(定)(受)(保)(家)(属)(或)(为)(不)(同)(规)(模)(的)(家)(庭)(提)(供)(不)(同)(价)(格)(的)(保)(险)(。为)(确)(保)(妇)(女)(和)(儿)(童)(都)(不)(会)(被)(排)(除)(在)(外)(,家)(庭)(保)(险)(是)(较)(好)(的)(可)(能)(。
甚)(至)(比)(确)(定)(哪)(些)(家)(属)(是)(有)(资)(格)(被)(保)(护)(更)(重)(要)(的)(是)(确)(定)(谁)(优)(先)(被)(保)(护)(,为)(了)(最)(大)(限)(度)(地)(减)(少)(索)(赔)(欺)(诈)(,该)(项)(政)(策)(所)(涵)(盖)(的)(每)(个)(人)(必)(须)(单)(独)(使)(用)(确)(定)(的)(官)(方)(文)(件)((如)(果)(可)(能)()和)(/或)(照)(片)(。如)(果)(没)(有)(对)(附)(加)(人)(士)(的)(明)(确)(身)(份)(识)(别)(,将)(不)(能)(充)(分)(确)(定)(被)(保)(人)(群)(。同)(样)(重)(要)(的)(是)(要)(控)(制)(家)(属)(的)(行)(动)(,例)(如)(,为)(了)(控)(制)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(,客)(户)(可)(能)(有)(一)(个)(选)(项)(,该)(选)(项)(规)(定)(了)(新)(生)(儿)(加)(入)(保)(单)(的)(规)(定)(时)(间)(框)(架)(,在)(此)(之)(后)(则)(不)(行)(。
索)(赔)(
证)(明)(保)(险)(价)(值)(的)(最)(好)(机)(会)(是)(支)(付)(索)(赔)(。索)(赔)(什)(么)(时)(候)(支)(付)(与)(怎)(么)(支)(付)(同)(等)(重)(要)(。有)(些)(产)(品)(分)(期)(支)(付)(而)(不)(是)(一)(次)(性)(付)(清)(,以)(支)(付)(日)(常)(开)(支)(。在)(投)(保)(事)(件)(发)(生)(一)(段)(时)(间)(后)(理)(赔)(的)(好)(处)(可)(以)(保)(障)(被)(保)(险)(人)(事)(件)(有)(可)(能)(更)(大)(的)(发)(展)(,比)(一)(次)(性)(付)(款)(影)(响)(深)(远)(,因)(为)(对)(支)(付)(的)(接)(收)(要)(求)(变)(得)(更)(加)(显)(著)(;如)(果)(保)(险)(支)(出)(都)(花)(在)(为)(例)(如)(,在)(一)(个)(精)(心)(制)(作)(的)(葬)(礼)(,它)(不)(再)(是)(可)(用)(于)(帮)(助)(家)(庭)(应)(对)(亲)(人)(逝)(去)(带)(来)(的)(损)(失)(。
一)(般)(索)(赔)(支)(付)(,只)(有)(当)(声)(称)(索)(赔)(验)(证)(已)(通)(过)(,保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(的)(权)(利)(才)(会)(被)(高)(效)(地)(索)(赔)(处)(理)(,以)(确)(保)(他)(们)(获)(得)(实)(惠)(的)(保)(险)(费)(。申)(请)(索)(赔)(的)(验)(证)(过)(程)(包)(括)(:
(1)被)(保)(险)(人)(事)(件)(导)(致)(损)(失)(的)(通)(知)(;
(2)集)(合)(所)(需)(文)(件)(;
(3)介)(绍)(索)(赔)(申)(请)(中)(介)(或)(保)(险)(公)(司)(;
(4)理)(赔)(核)(实)(及)(金)(额)(;
(5)理)(赔)(。
一)(般)(来)(说)(,必)(须)(有)(足)(够)(的)(检)(查)(和)(第)(三)(方)(证)(明)(,以)(确)(保)(不)(是)(欺)(诈)(索)(赔)(。有)(效)(地)(控)(制)(集)(中)(在)(确)(保)(由)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(所)(提)(供)(的)(信)(息)(是)(准)(确)(的)(和)(可)(核)(查)(的)(,而)(且)(所)(有)(相)(关)(的)(与)(索)(赔)(提)(交)(的)(文)(件)(都)(是)(原)(始)(的)(并)(没)(有)(显)(示)(任)(何)(欺)(诈)(迹)(象)(。控)(制)(一)(定)(要)(严)(格)(,但)(也)(符)(合)(成)(本)(效)(益)(并)(反)(映)(出)(客)(户)(提)(供)(所)(需)(信)(息)(的)(能)(力)(。例)(如)(,死)(亡)(证)(明)(往)(往)(是)(寿)(险)(保)(单)(要)(求)(提)(供)(的)(,但)(如)(果)(他)(们)(能)(很)(容)(易)(地)(从)(贪)(官)(处)(购)(买)(,信)(息)(就)(不)(会)(得)(到)(有)(效)(的)(控)(制)(。另)(外)(,如)(果)(保)(护)(文)(档)((包)(括)(时)(间)(和)(旅)(行)()的)(成)(本)(都)(很)(高)(,那)(么)(该)(产)(品)(将)(不)(会)(给)(客)(户)(提)(供)(特)(别)(好)(的)(价)(值)(。
保)(险)(产)(品)(
保)(险)(产)(品)(应)(主)(要)(基)(于)(需)(求)(的)(研)(究)(而)(设)(计)(。人)(们)(究)(竟)(希)(望)(保)(险)(覆)(盖)(什)(么)(?一)(般)(的)(经)(验)(是)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(应)(因)(以)(下)(几)(个)(原)(因)(而)(尽)(可)(能)(保)(持)(简)(单)(。首)(先)(,要)(保)(持)(保)(费)(低)(,行)(政)(成)(本)(必)(须)(保)(持)(低)(;如)(果)(好)(处)(是)(简)(单)(明)(了)(就)(很)(容)(易)(实)(现)(这)(个)(目)(标)(,如)(果)(供)(应)(商)(有)(一)(个)(优)(秀)(的)(管)(理)(信)(息)(系)(统)(,就)(可)(能)(以)(成)(本)(效)(益)(的)(方)(式)(管)(理)(更)(复)(杂)(的)(产)(品)(虽)(然)(这)(尚)(不)(是)(一)(个)(小)(额)(保)(险)(表)(现)(出)(色)(的)(区)(域)(。
其)(次)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(目)(标)(市)(场)(往)(往)(对)(保)(险)(缺)(乏)(接)(触)(,并)(且)(不)(信)(任)(供)(应)(商)(。复)(杂)(的)(福)(利)(计)(划)(向)(客)(户)(解)(释)(起)(来)(是)(困)(难)(和)(费)(时)(的)(。如)(果)(它)(很)(难)(使)(投)(保)(人)(提)(出)(索)(赔)(或)(完)(全)(理)(解)(什)(么)(费)(用)(可)(理)(赔)(,则)(保)(险)(中)(提)(到)(的)(好)(处)(不)(会)(是)(特)(别)(有)(益)(的)(,虽)(然)(好)(处)(应)(该)(是)(简)(单)(和)(可)(索)(赔)(的)(,小)(额)(贷)(款)(也)(应)(该)(考)(虑)(提)(供)(不)(同)(的)(福)(利)(水)(平)(,使)(低)(收)(入)(市)(场)(可)(以)(尝)(试)(一)(个)(非)(常)(基)(本)(的)(和)(价)(格)(便)(宜)(的)(产)(品)(。如)(果)(他)(们)(开)(始)(相)(信)(,保)(险)(为)(他)(们)(的)(钱)(提)(供)(了)(良)(好)(的)(价)(值)(,他)(们)(可)(能)(会)(被)(吸)(引)(到)(更)(高)(的)(福)(利)(水)(平)(,这)(种)(从)(入)(门)(级)(产)(品)(毕)(业)(到)(更)(多)(实)(质)(性)(的)(好)(处)(将)(是)(一)(个)(衡)(量)(客)(户)(满)(意)(度)(和)(忠)(诚)(度)(的)(重)(要)(指)(标)(。
保)(险)(为)(特)(定)(的)(风)(险)(而)(设)(计)(。小)(额)(保)(险)(产)(品)(,大)(致)(可)(分)(为)(五)(个)(主)(要)(类)(别)(:人)(寿)(,健)(康)(,财)(产)(,农)(业)(和)(复)(合)(产)(品)(。伊)(斯)(兰)(保)(险)(,称)(为)(回)(教)(保)(险)(,其)(中)(心)(概)(念)(是)(互)(保)(。据)(此)(多)(方)(出)(资)(用)(来)(支)(持)(团)(体)(有)(资)(金)(需)(要)(的)(时)(候)(,如)(死)(亡)(,农)(作)(物)(损)(失)(或)(事)(故)(的)(发)(生)(。支)(付)(的)(保)(费)(以)(遵)(从)(伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(义)(的)(方)(式)(进)(行)(投)(资)(,以)(避)(免)(获)(利)(。
人)(寿)(保)(险)(
基)(本)(寿)(险)(是)(要)(提)(供)(的)(最)(简)(单)(保)(险)(。它)(一)(般)(是)(高)(需)(求)(,相)(对)(便)(宜)(,最)(耐)(欺)(诈)(和)(道)(德)(危)(险)(,并)(且)(不)(依)(赖)(于)(其)(他)(基)(础)(设)(施)(的)(存)(在)(和)(有)(效)(运)(作)(,例)(如)(诊)(所)(或)(医)(院)(。寿)(险)(涉)(及)(合)(同)(,据)(此)(,保)(险)(公)(司)(承)(诺)(就)(受)(保)(人)(的)(死)(亡)(支)(付)(给)(指)(定)(受)(益)(人)(一)(笔)(钱)(,在)(某)(些)(情)(况)(下)(,其)(他)(的)(事)(件)(,如)(重)(大)(疾)(病)(或)(永)(久)(伤)(残)(也)(可)(能)(会)(触)(发)(付)(款)(,人)(寿)(保)(险)(包)(括)(一)(系)(列)(变)(化)(如)(信)(贷)(寿)(险)(,定)(期)(寿)(险)(和)(丧)(葬)(保)(险)(以)(及)(像)(养)(老)(保)(险)(和)(年)(金)(这)(样)(累)(积)(价)(值)(的)(保)(险)(。
信)(贷)(人)(寿)(保)(险)(是)(人)(身)(保)(险)(挂)(钩)(贷)(款)(。在)(其)(最)(基)(本)(的)(形)(式)(中)(,保)(险)(金)(是)(贷)(款)(未)(偿)(付)(的)(余)(额)(,受)(益)(人)(是)(放)(贷)(人)(。许)(多)(信)(贷)(寿)(险)(计)(划)(要)(求)(借)(款)(人)(参)(保)(寿)(险)(。为)(在)(大)(多)(数)(情)(况)(下)(,信)(贷)(的)(人)(寿)(并)(没)(有)(提)(供)(太)(多)(的)(好)(处)(给)(客)(户)(;相)(反)(,它)(却)(可)(以)(保)(护)(放)(贷)(人)(。不)(过)(,为)(了)(提)(供)(更)(好)(的)(价)(值)(给)(客)(户)(,信)(贷)(寿)(险)(产)(品)(也)(可)(以)(覆)(盖)(配)(偶)(和)(/或)(其)(他)(人)(士)(的)(人)(寿)(,或)(覆)(盖)(其)(他)(风)(险)(,如)(永)(久)(性)(残)(疾)(或)(火)(灾)(伤)(害)((Wipf等)(,2012)。
定)(期)(寿)(险)(的)(好)(处)(是)(支)(付)(仅)(发)(生)(在)(特)(定)(期)(间)(的)(保)(险)(人)(身)(故)(的)(情)(况)(。如)(果)(被)(保)(险)(人)(期)(限)(终)(了)(时)(是)(活)(着)(的)(,就)(不)(支)(付)(任)(何)(的)(利)(益)(。定)(期)(寿)(险)(在)(定)(价)(格)(和)(管)(理)(风)(险)(上)(是)(相)(对)(简)(单)(,虽)(然)(定)(期)(寿)(险)(没)(有)(其)(他)(类)(型)(的)(保)(险)(昂)(贵)(,如)(果)(不)(接)(受)(任)(何)(好)(处)(的)(话)(,低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(也)(许)(会)(感)(觉)(他)(们)(在)(浪)(费)(有)(限)(的)(资)(源)(来)(支)(付)(的)(保)(费)(。
葬)(礼)(保)(险)(本)(质)(上)(是)(一)(个)(定)(期)(寿)(险)(,是)(以)(现)(金)(或)(实)(物)(的)(效)(益)(来)(实)(现)(的)(,就)(比)(如)(,葬)(礼)(服)(务)(本)(身)(。本)(产)(品)(是)(独)(一)(无)(二)(的)(,因)(为)(在)(像)(南)(非)(一)(些)(地)(方)(,有)(显)(著)(的)(需)(求)(。因)(此)(它)(可)(以)(通)(过)(被)(动)(渠)(道)(比)(如)(一)(个)(零)(售)(商)(出)(售)(或)(上)(市)(,葬)(礼)(保)(险)(甚)(至)(可)(能)(在)(殡)(仪)(馆)(出)(售)(,可)(能)(会)(或)(可)(能)(不)(被)(受)(监)(管)(的)(保)(险)(公)(司)(承)(保)(,葬)(礼)(保)(险)(有)(时)(会)(比)(其)(他)(险)(种)(更)(吸)(引)(低)(收)(入)(群)(体)(。因)(为)(产)(品)(利)(益)(——葬)(礼)(服)(务)(——是)(有)(形)(的)(,代)(表)(了)(对)(低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(的)(一)(笔)(显)(著)(费)(用)(。为)(了)(提)(高)(这)(类)(产)(品)(对)(受)(益)(者)(的)(价)(值)(,葬)(礼)(之)(后)(,一)(些)(葬)(礼)(产)(品)(提)(供)(一)(个)(利)(益)(支)(付)(的)(时)(间)(表)(,如)(支)(付)(学)(费)(和)(电)(费)(单)(或)(提)(供)(12个)(至)(24个)(月)(的)(食)(品)(杂)(货)(,帮)(助)(那)(些)(已)(经)(失)(去)(劳)(动)(力)(且)(需)(要)(支)(付)(葬)(礼)(的)(费)(用)(和)(没)(有)(经)(济)(来)(源)(的)(家)(庭)((Hougaard和)(Chamberlian,2012)。
累)(积)(价)(值)(的)(产)(品)(,如)(养)(老)(计)(划)(和)(生)(活)(年)(金)(,包)(括)(长)(期)(人)(寿)(保)(险)(和)(储)(蓄)(的)(因)(素)(,因)(此)(它)(们)(是)(比)(基)(本)(的)(定)(期)(寿)(险)(产)(品)(更)(为)(复)(杂)(的)(金)(融)(工)(具)(。养)(老)(保)(单)(结)(合)(了)(契)(约)(型)(储)(蓄)(产)(品)(和)(保)(险)(等)(要)(素)(。一)(个)(养)(老)(保)(单)(在)(一)(段)(时)(间)(内)(积)(累)(价)(值)(,并)(定)(期)(,通)(常)(是)(5年)(、10年)(或)(15年)(,支)(付)(保)(费)(,如)(果)(投)(保)(人)(能)(在)(保)(期)(后)(仍)(在)(世)(,他)(或)(她)(会)(收)(到)(一)(笔)(一)(次)(付)(清)(的)(款)(项)(。如)(果)(投)(保)(人)(死)(在)(保)(期)(内)(,他)(或)(她)(的)(受)(益)(人)(收)(到)(一)(笔)(支)(付)(款)(项)(,我)(们)(称)(它)(为)(保)(险)(金)(额)(。养)(老)(保)(险)(也)(可)(以)(提)(前)(放)(单)(,可)(以)(折)(价)(支)(付)(,这)(些)(变)(化)(取)(决)(于)(保)(单)(起)(效)(多)(长)(时)(间)(以)(及)(投)(保)(支)(付)(的)(总)(额)(。
养)(老)(政)(策)(的)(吸)(引)(力)(在)(于)(它)(们)(使)(投)(保)(人)(通)(过)(契)(约)(储)(蓄)(成)(分)(积)(累)(资)(产)(,使)(穷)(人)(能)(够)(获)(得)(保)(险)(赔)(偿)(金)(,即)(使)(保)(险)(事)(故)(不)(发)(生)(。这)(种)(产)(品)(的)(困)(难)(就)(是)(产)(品)(的)(保)(费)(有)(很)(大)(一)(部)(分)(用)(于)(支)(付)(行)(政)(费)(用)(,包)(括)(代)(理)(商)(的)(佣)(金)(。同)(时)(,通)(胀)(率)(和)(低)(投)(资)(回)(报)(率)(会)(降)(低)(利)(益)(,如)(果)(保)(单)(失)(效)(,贡)(献)(被)(没)(收)(。因)(此)(,本)(产)(品)(提)(供)(给)(投)(保)(人)(有)(限)(的)(价)(值)(,特)(别)(是)(如)(果)(客)(户)(不)(能)(定)(期)(支)(付)(保)(费)(和)(保)(单)(失)(效)(,这)(经)(常)(会)(发)(生)(于)(那)(些)(没)(有)(固)(定)(收)(入)(的)(低)(收)(入)(客)(户)(。克)(服)(养)(老)(保)(单)(短)(板)(的)(努)(力)(正)(在)(进)(行)(中)(,特)(别)(是)(印)(度)(的)(保)(险)(公)(司)(,这)(个)(可)(以)(在)(表)(11.1的)(例)(子)(中)(得)(到)(证)(明)(。
随)(着)(人)(寿)(年)(金)(,保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(定)(期)(支)(付)(保)(险)(费)(直)(到)(指)(定)(的)(日)(期)(,通)(常)(是)(指)(退)(休)(日)(期)(,退)(休)(之)(后)(他)(或)(她)(定)(期)(收)(到)(利)(益)(支)(付)(,直)(至)(死)(亡)(。通)(常)(人)(寿)(年)(金)(被)(称)(为)(养)(老)(金)(,虽)(然)(它)(们)(不)(一)(定)(与)(退)(休)(有)(关)(联)(,像)(其)(他)(保)(险)(产)(品)(,人)(寿)(年)(金)(遵)(循)(汇)(聚)(原)(则)(。一)(个)(人)(群)(可)(能)(被)(预)(期)(在)(人)(口)(平)(均)(寿)(命)(上)(下)(有)(一)(个)(寿)(命)(分)(布)(,所)(以)(这)(些)(死)(亡)(早)(的)(就)(会)(支)(持)(那)(些)(活)(得)(更)(长)(的)(。设)(计)(这)(样)(一)(个)(产)(品)(,保)(险)(公)(司)(需)(要)(目)(标)(人)(群)(年)(龄)(的)(准)(确)(数)(据)(和)(死)(亡)(率)(表)(以)(及)(精)(算)(专)(业)(知)(识)(来)(预)(测)(未)(来)(趋)(势)(.所)(以)(年)(金)(的)(定)(价)(非)(常)(困)(难)(,尤)(其)(是)(在)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,因)(此)(,这)(样)(的)(产)(品)(一)(般)(不)(可)(用)(于)(低)(收)(益)(市)(场)(。
存)(款)(完)(成)(保)(险)(将)(契)(约)(型)(储)(蓄)(与)(保)(险)(相)(结)(合)(起)(来)(。在)(死)(亡)(事)(件)(中)(,储)(蓄)(完)(成)(保)(险)(覆)(盖)(了)(储)(存)(额)(和)(目)(标)(储)(蓄)(金)(额)(之)(间)(的)(差)(异)(。养)(老)(和)(储)(蓄)(完)(成)(保)(险)(的)(一)(个)(主)(要)(区)(别)(是)(对)(于)(后)(者)(保)(险)(人)(未)(持)(有)(储)(蓄)(,而)(是)(金)(融)(服)(务)(供)(应)(商)(持)(有)(。从)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(角)(度)(来)(看)(,这)(是)(一)(个)(很)(简)(单)(的)(产)(品)(:只)(是)(基)(本)(的)(定)(期)(寿)(险)(与)(递)(减)(的)(赔)(偿)(额)(。但)(是)(,它)(对)(保)(险)(公)(司)(来)(说)(可)(能)(比)(养)(老)(保)(单)(更)(无)(吸)(引)(力)(。因)(为)(保)(险)(公)(司)(一)(般)(都)(比)(较)(喜)(欢)(持)(有)(储)(蓄)(,这)(使)(他)(们)(能)(够)(投)(资)(并)(赚)(取)(额)(外)(收)(入)(。另)(外)(,储)(蓄)(完)(成)(保)(险)(可)(为)(客)(户)(提)(供)(更)(好)(的)(价)(值)(,因)(为)(他)(们)(的)(储)(蓄)(不)(会)(用)(来)(支)(付)(代)(理)(人)(的)(佣)(金)(。
对)(于)(所)(有)(长)(期)(保)(险)(产)(品)(,投)(保)(人)(要)(相)(信)(保)(险)(公)(司)(会)(存)(在)(于)(10年)(、20年)(或)(30年)(后)(,能)(够)(支)(付)(预)(计)(福)(利)(。因)(此)(,保)(险)(公)(司)(需)(要)(接)(受)(管)(理)(和)(监)(督)(,以)(使)(他)(们)(继)(续)(运)(作)(并)(能)(履)(行)(自)(己)(的)(承)(诺)(,尤)(其)(是)(出)(现)(通)(货)(膨)(胀)(和)(货)(币)(贬)(值)(的)(情)(况)(。
健)(康)(
健)(康)(保)(险)(是)(具)(有)(较)(高)(要)(求)(的)(保)(险)(产)(品)(之)(一)(,难)(以)(提)(供)(给)(低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(。它)(具)(有)(很)(大)(的)(市)(场)(需)(求)(,因)(为)(健)(康)(风)(险)(频)(繁)(发)(生)(,成)(本)(可)(能)(是)(灾)(难)(性)(的)(,健)(康)(问)(题)(导)(致)(费)(用)(治)(疗)(,但)(也)(导)(致)(收)(入)(的)(减)(少)(,从)(而)(导)(致)(生)(产)(力)(的)(损)(失)(。有)(医)(疗)(保)(险)(的)(好)(处)(是)(,人)(们)(不)(必)(因)(为)(他)(们)(无)(法)(支)(付)(而)(耽)(误)(治)(疗)(,这)(反)(过)(来)(又)(可)(以)(减)(少)(收)(入)(和)(健)(康)(的)(损)(失)(,从)(而)(保)(持)(更)(好)(的)(健)(康)(状)(况)(。如)(果)(补)(贴)(不)(到)(位)(,覆)(盖)(穷)(人)(的)(范)(围)(将)(有)(限)(,治)(疗)(范)(围)(也)(有)(限)(。健)(康)(保)(险)(的)(有)(效)(性)(在)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(取)(决)(于)(卫)(生)(保)(健)(系)(统)(的)(可)(用)(性)(上)(。
健)(康)(保)(险)(可)(能)(很)(复)(杂)(且)(难)(以)(定)(价)(和)(管)(理)(,因)(为)(它)(涉)(及)(第)(三)(方)((卫)(生)(保)(健)(提)(供)(者)()以)(及)(潜)(在)(的)(风)(险)(,包)(括)(过)(度)(使)(用)(和)(欺)(诈)(行)(为)(。
健)(康)(保)(险)(福)(利)(往)(往)(是)(在)(付)(费)(报)(销)(的)(基)(础)(上)(享)(受)(的)(;保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(支)(付)(医)(疗)(费)(用)(,然)(后)(提)(交)(收)(据)(报)(销)(。这)(样)(的)(设)(置)(通)(常)(是)(不)(太)(适)(合)(于)(没)(有)(定)(期)(现)(金)(流)(的)(贫)(困)(客)(户)(。一)(些)(健)(康)(保)(险)(程)(序)(使)(用)(第)(三)(方)(或)(无)(现)(金)(支)(付)(制)(度)(,即)(小)(微)(保)(险)(商)((microinsurer)直)(接)(向)(医)(疗)(提)(供)(商)(支)(付)(费)(用)(,因)(此)(被)(保)(险)(人)(不)(会)(掏)(不)(起)(钱)(治)(疗)(,除)(此)(之)(外)(,共)(付)(额)(或)(交)(通)(费)(用)(有)(时)(也)(由)(保)(险)(公)(司)(报)(销)((LeRoy和)(Holts,2012)。
如)(同)(寿)(险)(,有)(几)(种)(不)(同)(的)(构)(建)(健)(康)(保)(险)(福)(利)(的)(方)(式)(,但)(实)(际)(上)(不)(是)(所)(有)(方)(式)(都)(涵)(盖)(医)(疗)(成)(本)(。
最)(基)(本)(的)(版)(本)(,危)(险)(疾)(病)(的)(保)(障)(,本)(质)(上)(是)(支)(付)(人)(寿)(保)(单)(早)(期)(支)(付)(,也)(就)(是)(在)(人)(死)(之)(前)(,如)(果)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(被)(诊)(断)(为)(特)(定)(重)(大)(疾)(病)(或)(绝)(症)(。在)(小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,保)(险)(金)(是)(不)(太)(可)(能)(覆)(盖)(治)(疗)(成)(本)(,但)(会)(协)(助)(解)(决)(不)(能)(够)(正)(常)(工)(作)(的)(持)(保)(人)(的)(财)(务)(困)(难)(。
医)(院)(现)(金)(在)(被)(保)(人)(住)(院)(期)(间)(按)(日)(支)(付)(一)(定)(比)(率)(的)(保)(险)(金)(,以)(及)(有)(时)(还)(包)(括)(额)(外)(的)(交)(通)(费)(。这)(样)(的)(产)(品)(还)(没)(有)(连)(接)(到)(实)(际)(的)(医)(疗)(费)(用)(,因)(此)(索)(赔)(处)(理)(无)(须)(医)(学)(专)(业)(知)(识)(。这)(样)(的)(产)(品)(特)(别)(适)(用)(于)(情)(况)(不)(佳)(但)(有)(机)(会)(获)(得)(优)(质)(的)(政)(府)(医)(疗)(或)(其)(他)(低)(成)(本)(的)(医)(院)(。
住)(院)(病)(人)(的)(保)(险)(支)(付)(了)(住)(院)(的)(实)(际)(开)(销)(,并)(与)(产)(生)(的)(医)(疗)(费)(用)(直)(接)(相)(关)(。住)(院)(治)(疗)(是)(一)(个)(可)(保)(风)(险)(的)(很)(好)(例)(子)(,因)(为)(它)(是)(一)(笔)(大)(且)(很)(少)(发)(生)(的)(费)(用)(,所)(以)(有)(可)(能)(使)(风)(险)(池)(有)(效)(地)(发)(挥)(作)(用)(。但)(是)(,住)(院)(仅)(覆)(盖)(通)(常)(不)(包)(括)(预)(防)(保)(健)(和)(早)(期)(治)(疗)(的)(情)(况)(,鼓)(励)(被)(保)(险)(人)(等)(到)(病)(情)(很)(严)(重)(需)(要)(住)(院)(时)(前)(往)(就)(诊)(,而)(不)(是)(通)(过)(之)(前)(就)(医)(及)(早)(解)(决)(病)(情)(以)(得)(到)(更)(有)(效)(处)(理)(。
医)(药)(保)(险)(可)(以)(独)(自)(支)(付)(药)(品)(费)(用)(或)(作)(为)(其)(他)(健)(康)(保)(险)(的)(一)(个)(额)(外)(好)(处)(。
门)(诊)(保)(险)(项)(目)(用)(于)(支)(付)(门)(诊)(就)(医)(的)(费)(用)(。因)(为)(它)(不)(是)(一)(个)(主)(要)(开)(支)(且)(发)(生)(较)(为)(频)(繁)(,风)(险)(共)(担)(不)(能)(正)(常)(工)(作)(。因)(此)(,一)(些)(组)(织)(尝)(试)(了)(用)(健)(康)(储)(蓄)(代)(替)(门)(诊)(费)(用)(并)(有)(可)(能)(关)(联)(住)(院)(保)(险)(。它)(在)(保)(险)(产)(品)(里)(涵)(盖)(门)(诊)(费)(用)(的)(优)(点)(是)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(会)(利)(用)(这)(一)(福)(利)(并)(因)(此)(重)(视)(保)(单)(持)(续)(的)(价)(值)(。而)(住)(院)(保)(险)(项)(目)(正)(相)(反)(,只)(有)(不)(到)(5%的)(保)(单)(有)(可)(能)(出)(现)(索)(赔)(,因)(此)(,许)(多)(人)(可)(能)(觉)(得)(他)(们)(已)(经)(浪)(费)(了)(他)(们)(的)(钱)(。
专)(栏)(116女)(性)(“看)(护)(者)(”的)(小)(额)(基)(金)(产)(品)(
在)(医)(疗)(保)(健)(费)(用)(相)(比)(于)(事)(件)(的)(机)(会)(成)(本)(是)(很)(低)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,福)(利)(有)(时)(需)(要)(以)(每)(日)(津)(贴)(的)(形)(式)(发)(放)(,而)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(可)(以)(随)(意)(使)(用)(.在)(约)(旦)(,女)(性)(看)(护)(者)(的)(小)(额)(基)(金)(产)(品)(是)(作)(为)(医)(院)(现)(金)(型)(产)(品)(设)(计)(,但)(有)(性)(别)(侧)(重)(.它)(认)(识)(到)(妇)(女)(是)(家)(庭)(的)(主)(要)(照)(顾)(者)(,而)(且)(他)(们)(很)(可)(能)(不)(得)(不)(离)(开)(自)(己)(的)(工)(作)(,如)(果)(他)(们)(的)(
在)(许)(多)(国)(家)(,包)(括)(发)(达)(国)(家)(和)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,人)(们)(持)(续)(争)(论)(政)(府)(在)(向)(公)(众)(,尤)(其)(是)(穷)(人)(,提)(供)(健)(康)(保)(险)(福)(利)(上)(所)(应)(扮)(演)(的)(角)(色)(。虽)(然)(全)(民)(医)(疗)(保)(险)(覆)(盖)(范)(围)(肯)(定)(是)(一)(个)(理)(想)(的)(目)(标)(,政)(府)(无)(法)(负)(担)(它)(却)(可)(能)(影)(响)(到)(它)(的)(优)(点)(,在)(某)(种)(程)(度)(上)(,也)(许)(通)(过)(限)(制)(向)(穷)(人)(的)(覆)(盖)(面)(,或)(通)(过)(补)(贴)(医)(保)(提)(供)(者)(,以)(降)(低)(消)(费)(者)(成)(本)(。在)(一)(些)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,包)(括)(卢)(旺)(达)(、加)(纳)(和)(印)(度)(,政)(府)(正)(带)(头)(领)(导)(扩)(大)(医)(疗)(保)(险)(覆)(盖)(面)(面)(向)(非)(正)(规)(经)(济)(的)(工)(人)(的)(工)(作)(。
事)(实)(上)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(正)(处)(于)(十)(字)(路)(口)(,位)(于)(金)(融)(普)(惠)(和)(社)(会)(保)(护)(之)(间)(;有)(时)(它)(是)(由)(保)(险)(公)(司)(在)(纯)(市)(场)(的)(基)(础)(上)(提)(供)(,有)(时)(它)(是)(由)(政)(府)(完)(全)(补)(贴)(,而)(事)(实)(往)(往)(是)(介)(于)(两)(者)(之)(间)(。
财)(产)(
财)(产)(保)(险)(的)(服)(务)(范)(围)(包)(括)(有)(形)(资)(产)(,如)(住)(房)(和)(机)(械)(设)(备)(等)(内)(容)(。对)(于)(低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(和)(企)(业)(,这)(样)(的)(范)(围)(很)(难)(落)(实)(和)(核)(实)(索)(赔)(,因)(为)(所)(有)(权)(可)(能)(不)(是)(很)(清)(楚)(,实)(际)(的)(损)(失)(可)(能)(难)(以)(核)(实)(,除)(了)(农)(业)(保)(险)(,就)(没)(有)(多)(少)(独)(立)(的)(财)(产)(保)(险)(项)(目)(提)(供)(给)(低)(收)(入)(市)(场)(的)(例)(子)(,尽)(管)(它)(被)(包)(括)(在)(一)(些)(复)(合)(产)(品)(之)(中)(。也)(许)(最)(常)(见)(财)(产)(小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(类)(型)(是)(一)(个)(搭)(便)(车)(在)(一)(个)(信)(贷)(寿)(险)(保)(单)(上)(。如)(果)(借)(款)(人)(的)(业)(务)(破)(产)(,将)(对)(其)(支)(付)(特)(定)(的)(保)(险)(金)(。这)(种)(风)(险)(对)(在)(大)(市)(场)(中)(经)(营)(买)(卖)(的)(小)(微)(金)(融)(客)(户)(来)(说)(很)(常)(见)(。
农)(业)(
在)(农)(村)(,低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(高)(度)(关)(注)(干)(旱)(、家)(畜)(死)(亡)(和)(其)(他)(农)(业)(风)(险)(。因)(为)(没)(有)(对)(农)(业)(风)(险)(进)(行)(保)(护)(,金)(融)(服)(务)(供)(应)(商)(可)(能)(不)(愿)(意)(对)(农)(业)(放)(贷)(。即)(使)(贫)(困)(农)(民)(有)(资)(金)(在)(一)(个)(生)(长)(季)(节)(支)(付)(种)(子)(和)(化)(肥)(,庄)(稼)(的)(颗)(粒)(无)(收)(可)(能)(会)(毁)(了)(他)(们)(在)(接)(下)(来)(的)(一)(个)(季)(节)(的)(种)(植)(能)(力)(。这)(些)(风)(险)(往)(往)(是)(协)(变)(的)(,影)(响)(在)(同)(一)(区)(域)(许)(多)(农)(民)(,同)(时)(造)(成)(特)(别)(大)(的)(本)(地)(贷)(款)(风)(险)(。当)(整)(个)(社)(区)(都)(受)(影)(响)(时)(,这)(也)(会)(限)(制)(农)(民)(互)(相)(帮)(助)(的)(能)(力)(。
农)(业)(保)(险)(一)(般)(包)(括)(作)(物)(种)(植)(失)(败)(和)(牲)(畜)(的)(死)(亡)(。然)(而)(,它)(也)(伴)(随)(着)(挑)(战)(,特)(别)(是)(道)(德)(危)(险)((例)(如)(,有)(了)(保)(险)(却)(促)(使)(农)(民)(不)(遵)(循)(适)(当)(的)(耕)(作)(方)(式)(),协)(变)(风)(险)((例)(如)(,自)(然)(灾)(害)(同)(时)(影)(响)(到)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(很)(多)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(),欺)(诈)(行)(为)((例)(如)(,农)(民)(可)(以)(对)(种)(植)(损)(失)(作)(假)(或)(从)(索)(赔)(上)(不)(当)(获)(利)(),且)(验)(证)(过)(程)(花)(费)(不)(菲)(,特)(别)(是)(对)(于)(小)(农)(场)(。
克)(服)(这)(些)(问)(题)(的)(一)(种)(创)(新)(是)(指)(数)(型)(保)(险)(,据)(此)(,优)(点)(是)(在)(一)(个)(特)(定)(的)(地)(理)(保)(单)(区)(域)(。如)(果)(预)(定)(的)(衡)(量)(结)(果)(发)(生)(时)(,如)(雨)(水)(过)(多)(或)(过)(少)(、气)(温)(高)(于)(或)(低)(于)(一)(定)(的)(阈)(值)(,或)(过)(量)(的)(风)(速)(,无)(论)(他)(们)(是)(否)(遇)(到)(损)(失)(,持)(保)(人)(都)(会)(收)(到)(相)(应)(的)(保)(险)(金)(。指)(数)(型)(保)(险)(最)(大)(的)(好)(处)(是)(,它)(有)(助)(于)(消)(除)(欺)(诈)(和)(道)(德)(风)(险)(且)(最)(大)(限)(度)(地)(减)(少)(了)(索)(赔)(处)(理)(的)(成)(本)(。但)(是)(,一)(个)(关)(键)(的)(限)(制)(被)(称)(为)(基)(准)(风)(险)(是)(即)(使)(没)(有)(触)(发)(索)(引)(,农)(民)(可)(能)(遭)(受)(损)(失)(,或)(者)(不)(遭)(受)(损)(失)(却)(仍)(收)(到)(补)(偿)(。
综)(合)(保)(险)(
由)(一)(些)(低)(收)(入)(市)(场)(提)(供)(,综)(合)(保)(险)(是)(将)(多)(种)(保)(险)(收)(益)(融)(入)(一)(份)(保)(单)(中)(。可)(以)(从)(两)(个)(或)(多)(个)(不)(同)(的)(保)(险)(公)(司)(获)(益)(并)(被)(捆)(绑)(到)(一)(份)(综)(合)(性)(产)(品)(里)(,理)(由)(是)(复)(合)(保)(险)(以)(较)(低)(的)(成)(本)(提)(供)(更)(全)(面)(的)(风)(险)(保)(障)(包)((即)(如)(果)(出)(售)(三)(个)(独)(立)(的)(产)(品)(价)(格)(会)(更)(昂)(贵)()。很)(多)(保)(险)(产)(品)(的)(附)(加)(收)(益)(的)(边)(际)(成)(本)(是)(最)(小)(的)(,另)(外)(,当)(销)(售)(产)(品)(时)(,具)(有)(成)(本)(效)(益)(的)(解)(决)(方)(案)(可)(以)(解)(决)(多)(元)(化)(的)(风)(险)(管)(理)(需)(求)(。
例)(如)(,VimoSEWA印)(度)(贸)(易)(团)(体)(“个)(体)(经)(营)(妇)(女)(协)(会)(”(以)(下)(简)(称)(SEWA)的)(保)(险)(分)(支)(机)(构)(通)(过)(一)(个)(保)(险)(产)(品)(,向)(个)(人)(及)(家)(庭)(提)(供)(人)(寿)(、医)(疗)(及)(贫)(困)(的)(保)(险)(覆)(盖)(。然)(而)(,因)(为)(相)(关)(保)(险)(法)(规)(要)(求)(企)(业)(及)(公)(司)(在)(人)(寿)(保)(险)(和)(一)(般)(保)(险)(方)(面)(要)(有)(独)(立)(的)(许)(可)(证)(,所)(以)(风)(险)(是)(由)(两)(个)(不)(同)(的)(公)(司)(承)(销)(,印)(度)(人)(寿)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(人)(身)(保)(险)(和)(新)(印)(度)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(非)(人)(寿)(保)(险)(正)(是)(如)(此)(。
综)(合)(保)(险)(面)(临)(的)(一)(个)(挑)(战)(是)(,受)(益)(是)(复)(杂)(的)(,这)(违)(背)(了)(小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(一)(个)(主)(要)(宗)(旨)(:简)(单)(。一)(个)(相)(关)(的)(问)(题)(是)(缺)(乏)(透)(明)(度)(,每)(个)(人)(单)(个)(收)(益)(相)(对)(于)(总)(价)(的)(占)(比)(可)(能)(不)(能)(清)(楚)(地)(表)(示)(出)(来)(,也)(不)(允)(许)(客)(户)(选)(择)(他)(们)(想)(要)(的)(特)(定)(收)(益)(。因)(为)(不)(同)(的)(风)(险)(可)(能)(由)(不)(同)(的)(公)(司)(来)(管)(理)(,确)(实)(会)(存)(在)(这)(样)(的)(问)(题)(:通)(过)(该)(产)(品)(的)(一)(个)(组)(件)(提)(供)(的)(服)(务)(是)(不)(充)(分)(,并)(负)(面)(地)(影)(响)(到)(客)(户)(对)(整)(个)(产)(品)(的)(感)(观)(。
小)(额)(保)(险)(与)(金)(融)(普)(惠)(
小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(一)(个)(特)(性)(是)(广)(泛)(包)(容)(的)(意)(愿)(,商)(业)(保)(险)(公)(司)(通)(常)(会)(采)(取)(限)(制)(其)(曝)(光)(的)(方)(法)(排)(除)(高)(风)(险)(,正)(如)(老)(年)(人)(或)(有)(预)(存)(状)(况)(的)(人)(群)(,自)(然)(排)(除)(掉)(大)(量)(的)(弱)(势)(群)(体)(。小)(额)(保)(险)(面)(临)(的)(挑)(战)(是)(要)(找)(到)(一)(种)(方)(法)(在)(未)(来)(相)(当)(长)(的)(时)(间)(内)(以)(合)(理)(的)(价)(格)(普)(惠)(性)(地)(服)(务)(弱)(势)(家)(庭)(。
更)(广)(泛)(的)(包)(容)(意)(味)(着)(通)(过)(降)(低)(筛)(选)(成)(本)(以)(达)(到)(更)(低)(的)(运)(营)(成)(本)(,同)(时)(接)(受)(高)(风)(险)(人)(士)(及)(伴)(随)(的)(索)(赔)(费)(用)(。然)(而)(,需)(要)(显)(著)(的)(规)(模)(去)(证)(明)(这)(种)(方)(法)(。如)(果)(好)(处)(是)(受)(限)(制)(的)(,或)(者)(如)(果)(保)(费)(也)(相)(应)(对)(风)(险)(的)(成)(员)(比)(对)(余)(下)(的)(团)(体)(高)(,则)(高)(危)(人)(群)(可)(被)(包)(含)(。这)(两)(种)(方)(法)(都)(降)(低)(了)(由)(其)(余)(成)(员)(对)(高)(风)(险)(个)(体)(的)(交)(叉)(补)(贴)(以)(在)(一)(个)(可)(持)(续)(的)(基)(础)(上)(支)(持)(更)(广)(泛)(的)(普)(惠)(性)(,这)(里)(面)(也)(存)(在)(一)(个)(充)(分)(的)(经)(济)(考)(量)(,即)(:监)(督)(和)(执)(行)(复)(杂)(的)(成)(本)(排)(除)(必)(须)(对)(要)(规)(避)(的)(索)(赔)(进)(行)(权)(衡)(,被)(保)(险)(人)(的)(小)(额)(保)(险)(金)(和)(小)(额)(保)(险)(产)(品)(保)(费)(不)(能)(支)(持)(复)(杂)(的)(筛)(选)(和)(索)(赔)(验)(证)(。
要)(得)(到)(更)(广)(泛)(的)(小)(额)(保)(险)(普)(惠)(性)(面)(临)(的)(另)(一)(个)(挑)(战)(是)(在)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,信)(息)(精)(算)(上)(,如)(死)(亡)(率)(和)(发)(病)(率)(,一)(般)(是)(不)(可)(靠)(的)(,通)(常)(是)(不)(使)(用)(的)(。伽)(兰)(德)(等)((2012)对)(使)(用)(有)(限)(的)(数)(据)(进)(行)(精)(确)(定)(价)(提)(出)(了)(一)(些)(解)(决)(方)(案)(,但)(只)(有)(当)(一)(个)(项)(目)(有)(足)(够)(的)(经)(验)(他)(们)(才)(能)(准)(确)(地)(预)(测)(索)(赔)(事)(件)(和)(成)(本)(。
虽)(然)(保)(险)(项)(目)(可)(能)(愿)(意)(接)(受)(高)(风)(险)(的)(成)(员)(,他)(们)(可)(能)(不)(会)(那)(么)(倾)(向)(于)(保)(留)(旧)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(。大)(部)(分)(有)(年)(龄)(上)(限)(制)(,只)(是)(当)(成)(员)(真)(正)(需)(要)(回)(报)(时)(却)(可)(能)(会)(被)(要)(求)(离)(开)(项)(目)(。在)(这)(些)(情)(况)(下)(,有)(些)(小)(额)(保)(险)(提)(供)(一)(个)(提)(款)(支)(付)(。保)(险)(公)(司)(可)(能)(会)(利)(用)(下)(列)(原)(因)(排)(除)(:
"控)(制)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(,例)(如)(,排)(除)(预)(先)(存)(在)(的)(某)(些)(条)(件)(。
"降)(低)(道)(德)(风)(险)(,例)(如)(,排)(除)(自)(杀)(。
"在)(特)(定)(的)(原)(因)(下)(通)(过)(消)(除)(高)(频)(或)(共)(同)(索)(赔)(及)(定)(位)(于)(特)(定)(的)(索)(赔)(理)(由)(以)(降)(低)(保)(险)(费)(用)(,例)(如)(,只)(承)(保)(事)(故)(,不)(包)(括)(因)(病)(导)(致)(的)(死)(亡)(。
"控)(制)(协)(变)(或)(巨)(灾)(风)(险)(,例)(如)(,排)(除)(暴)(乱)(或)(天)(气)(灾)(难)(。
"减)(少)(初)(始)(承)(保)(的)(范)(围)(,例)(如)(,在)(人)(寿)(保)(险)(中)(排)(除)(一)(年)(期)(艾)(滋)(病)(毒)(/艾)(滋)(病)(,无)(须)(用)(于)(测)(试)(。
然)(而)(,相)(比)(传)(统)(的)(保)(险)(公)(司)(小)(额)(保)(险)(可)(以)(采)(用)(不)(同)(的)(排)(除)(方)(法)(。虽)(然)(排)(除)(道)(德)(风)(险)(是)(合)(理)(的)(,本)(着)(社)(会)(保)(障)(的)(精)(神)(一)(个)(小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(类)(型)(可)(能)(通)(常)(排)(斥)(协)(变)(风)(险)(和)(一)(定)(的)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(风)(险)(。考)(虑)(到)(协)(变)(风)(险)(,很)(重)(要)(的)(是)(适)(当)(风)(险)(管)(理)(策)(略)(存)(在)(,如)(再)(保)(险)(。否)(则)(,不)(将)(灾)(难)(风)(险)(排)(除)(的)(唯)(一)(后)(果)(将)(是)(发)(生)(灾)(难)(后)(项)(目)(会)(破)(产)(,这)(对)(谁)(都)(没)(有)(好)(处)(。
排)(除)(先)(存)(状)(况)(的)(依)(据)(还)(不)(是)(很)(清)(楚)(。如)(果)(小)(额)(保)(险)(自)(愿)(提)(供)(个)(人)(保)(险)(,高)(风)(险)(的)(人)(最)(有)(可)(能)(注)(册)(;如)(果)(只)(有)(高)(风)(险)(的)(人)(加)(入)(,保)(险)(人)(不)(能)(有)(效)(地)(实)(行)(风)(险)(共)(担)(。但)(是)(,如)(果)(它)(是)(团)(体)(保)(险)(,尤)(其)(是)(如)(果)(它)(是)(强)(制)(性)(的)(,或)(小)(额)(保)(险)(招)(募)(大)(量)(保)(单)(持)(有)(人)(。那)(么)(考)(虑)(到)(预)(先)(存)(在)(的)(条)(件)(它)(可)(以)(更)(具)(有)(包)(容)(性)(,这)(种)(额)(外)(的)(风)(险)(在)(产)(品)(推)(出)(时)(最)(高)(。如)(果)(续)(约)(率)(可)(以)(保)(持)(高)(水)(平)(直)(到)(项)(目)(成)(熟)(,与)(预)(存)(状)(况)(相)(关)(联)(的)(风)(险)(更)(易)(于)(管)(理)(,因)(为)(新)(参)(保)(成)(员)(占)(整)(个)(组)(合)(的)(比)(例)(较)(小)(。
一)(个)(小)(额)(保)(险)(排)(除)(的)(替)(代)(品)(是)(等)(待)(期)(,指)(参)(保)(后)(一)(段)(时)(间)(内)(不)(能)(获)(得)(收)(益)(。例)(如)(艾)(滋)(病)(毒)(/艾)(滋)(病)(有)(关)(的)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(是)(使)(用)(6个)(月)(到)(一)(年)(的)(事)(故)(等)(待)(时)(间)(来)(管)(理)(。如)(果)(保)(险)(事)(故)(等)(候)(期)(间)(发)(生)(,索)(赔)(拒)(绝)(;如)(果)(投)(保)(人)(已)(经)(有)(问)(题)(保)(险)(人)(无)(须)(与)(医)(生)(商)(量)(并)(且)(也)(不)(必)(复)(查)(医)(疗)(记)(录)(,因)(为)(它)(与)(排)(除)(预)(先)(存)(在)(条)(件)(有)(关)(。
另)(一)(种)(更)(符)(合)(小)(额)(保)(险)(精)(神)(的)(方)(法)(是)(用)(持)(续)(增)(长)(的)(收)(益)(来)(提)(供)(收)(益)(计)(划)(。例)(如)(,如)(果)(被)(保)(险)(事)(件)(在)(第)(一)(年)(发)(生)(时)(,回)(报)(很)(少)(;但)(如)(果)(它)(在)(第)(一)(年)(之)(后)(情)(况)(发)(生)(时)(,回)(报)(就)(大)(得)(多)(。这)(种)(方)(法)(是)(一)(种)(控)(制)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(的)(有)(效)(方)(法)(,而)(创)(造)(一)(个)(公)(平)(的)(小)(额)(保)(险)(计)(划)(鼓)(励)(长)(期)(参)(与)(和)(续)(约)(。
继)(续)(发)(展)(
小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(快)(速)(增)(长)(意)(味)(着)(有)(更)(多)(的)(低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(有)(保)(险)(覆)(盖)(,但)(它)(并)(不)(一)(定)(意)(味)(着)(他)(们)(有)(高)(质)(量)(的)(覆)(盖)(。越)(来)(越)(多)(证)(据)(表)(明)(,对)(低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(和)(公)(司)(提)(供)(计)(划)(并)(传)(递)(保)(险)(服)(务)(,是)(可)(能)(的)(,并)(且)(对)(提)(供)(商)(也)(是)(可)(行)(的)(,但)(接)(下)(来)(要)(做)(的)(是)(增)(加)(提)(供)(给)(被)(保)(险)(人)(及)(受)(益)(者)(的)(这)(些)(产)(品)(的)(价)(值)(。在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,概)(念)(值)(包)(括)(一)(个)(尺)(寸)(范)(围)(,包)(括)(可)(负)(担)(性)(,可)(接)(触)(性)(,覆)(盖)(相)(关)(的)(风)(险)(,快)(速)(支)(付)(索)(赔)(,并)(由)(投)(保)(人)(支)(付)(的)(保)(费)(的)(一)(部)(分)(又)(回)(到)(风)(险)(池)(以)(索)(赔)(的)(形)(式)(存)(在)(。为)(了)(实)(现)(这)(些)(目)(标)(,有)(以)(下)(几)(个)(关)(键)(问)(题)(需)(要)(解)(决)(:
"提)(高)(保)(险)(素)(养)(:低)(水)(平)(的)(保)(险)(素)(养)(使)(客)(户)(很)(难)(了)(解)(它)(的)(政)(策)(并)(很)(好)(地)(加)(以)(利)(用)(,这)(损)(害)(了)(客)(户)(价)(值)(。金)(融)(教)(育)(对)(强)(制)(保)(险)(和)(补)(贴)(的)(产)(品)(都)(尤)(其)(重)(要)(。
"提)(高)(效)(率)(:对)(于)(很)(多)(产)(品)(来)(说)(小)(额)(保)(险)(行)(政)(成)(本)(仍)(然)(很)(高)(,这)(很)(难)(使)(投)(保)(人)(得)(到)(足)(够)(的)(保)(费)(索)(赔)(。为)(了)(支)(持)(规)(模)(化)(发)(展)(,保)(险)(公)(司)(就)(需)(要)(有)(效)(地)(处)(理)(庞)(大)(的)(数)(据)(量)(。
同)(时)(,从)(便)(携)(机)(和)(销)(售)(点)(设)(备)(到)(手)(机)(的)(这)(些)(管)(理)(技)(术)(,正)(开)(始)(改)(善)(销)(售)(、缴)(费)(甚)(至)(理)(赔)(过)(程)(。我)(们)(对)(技)(术)(将)(促)(进)(无)(纸)(化)(保)(险)(过)(程)(,将)(简)(化)(系)(统)(和)(为)(投)(保)(人)(提)(供)(更)(大)(的)(价)(值)(抱)(有)(很)(大)(的)(期)(望)(。
"引)(入)(自)(愿)(参)(保)(产)(品)(:迄)(今)(为)(止)(已)(经)(实)(现)(了)(的)(规)(模)(中)(很)(大)(一)(部)(分)(可)(以)(归)(因)(于)(强)(制)(覆)(盖)(或)(自)(动)(福)(利)(,下)(一)(步)(是)(尝)(试)(推)(出)(自)(愿)(参)(保)(产)(品)(和)(销)(售)(机)(制)(,为)(了)(更)(好)(地)(了)(解)(如)(何)(解)(锁)(对)(小)(额)(保)(险)(的)(潜)(在)(需)(求)(。
"吸)(引)(新)(参)(与)(者)(:保)(险)(公)(司)(已)(越)(来)(越)(多)(地)(被)(吸)(引)(到)(小)(额)(保)(险)(,但)(是)(服)(务)(范)(围)(也)(已)(大)(大)(增)(加)(,部)(分)(是)(因)(为)(新)(参)(与)(者)(的)(增)(加)(,,比)(如)(政)(府)(、移)(动)(电)(话)(公)(司)(、零)(售)(商)(、银)(行)(和)(记)(者)(。更)(大)(的)(竞)(争)(并)(不)(会)(自)(动)(导)(致)(更)(优)(质)(的)(产)(品)(,但)(这)(些)(新)(进)(入)(者)(可)(能)(有)(助)(于)(提)(升)(规)(模)(和)(客)(户)(价)(值)(。
"开)(发)(更)(好)(的)(数)(据)(:保)(险)(是)(一)(个)(数)(据)(密)(集)(型)(工)(业)(,抑)(制)(小)(额)(保)(险)(扩)(大)(的)(缺)(陷)(之)(一)(是)(缺)(少)(数)(据)(,包)(括)(人)(与)(动)(物)(的)(死)(亡)(率)(和)(发)(病)(率)(、财)(产)(损)(失)(及)(天)(气)(等)(有)(关)(的)(信)(息)(。机)(构)(业)(绩)(数)(据)(也)(是)(有)(限)(的)(,因)(为)(小)(额)(保)(险)(不)(被)(认)(为)(是)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(业)(务)(条)(线)(,他)(们)(往)(往)(不)(能)(评)(估)(自)(己)(在)(低)(收)(入)(市)(场)(的)(绩)(效)(。
"进)(入)(新)(市)(场)(:各)(个)(国)(家)(,包)(括)(印)(度)(、南)(非)(和)(菲)(律)(宾)(,都)(可)(以)(向)(人)(夸)(耀)(所)(取)(得)(的)(显)(著)(小)(额)(保)(险)(成)(就)(。但)(相)(对)(于)(每)(一)(个)(正)(在)(经)(历)(巨)(大)(的)(增)(长)(的)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,至)(少)(有)(三)(四)(个)(国)(家)(正)(处)(于)(停)(滞)(或)(仅)(开)(展)(有)(限)(的)(小)(额)(保)(险)(活)(动)(。
由)(于)(所)(需)(的)(小)(额)(保)(险)(示)(范)(效)(应)(将)(需)(要)(一)(些)(时)(间)(来)(呈)(现)(,因)(此)(要)(耐)(心)(对)(待)(。从)(Matual等)(人)((2011)的)(发)(现)(中)(表)(明)(,产)(品)(随)(着)(时)(间)(的)(推)(移)(更)(加)(成)(熟)(,它)(们)(变)(得)(更)(有)(效)(率)(并)(能)(提)(供)(更)(好)(的)(价)(值)(。在)(市)(场)(建)(设)(中)(一)(个)(关)(键)(的)(挑)(战)(是)(如)(何)(为)(鼓)(励)(中)(低)(收)(入)(家)(庭)(把)(向)(保)(险)(自)(然)(作)(为)(风)(险)(管)(理)(工)(具)(而)(创)(造)(条)(件)(。在)(小)(额)(保)(险)(普)(遍)(的)(环)(境)(中)(,供)(应)(商)(通)(过)(有)(效)(索)(赔)(支)(付)(培)(养)(市)(场)(信)(任)(的)(情)(况)(正)(新)(兴)(起)(来)(。然)(而)(,小)(额)(保)(险)(提)(供)(者)(需)(要)(继)(续)(认)(识)(到)(他)(们)(最)(重)(要)(的)(功)(能)(仍)(是)(支)(付)(索)(赔)(,并)(在)(新)(兴)(的)(示)(范)(效)(应)(基)(础)(上)(建)(设)(。(完)()
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